Anonymous functions

An anonymous function is a function that doesn’t have a name, and is typically used as an argument to another function. Functions are defined and managed using the Function API.

See User-defined functions in the migration document for FQL v10 and FQL v4 UDF interoperability.

Declaration and scope

Fauna Query Language (FQL) uses the JavaScript-style short-form arrow syntax to declare an anonymous function. Function declaration has the generalized form:

([param[, param]]) => {[statement[ statement …​] expression]}

The param can be any valid identifier including a single underscore (_), which can be repeated in the param list.

An anonymous function block can include field access constructs, operators, function arguments, and nested blocks. Variables declared in an anonymous function block are scoped to the anonymous function, but the function can access the variables in the parent block.

The last expression is the return value of the function. There is no explicit return keyword.

Simplified syntax

For a function with one parameter, the () enclosing the parameter can be omitted. If the function body consists of a single-line expression, the {} block can also be omitted. These examples are equivalent and return a value of 6:

let Double = (x) => {x + x}
Double(3)

let Double = x => x + x
Double(3)

Short form predicates

Some schema entities and built-in functions, such as where(), accept an anonymous function as input parameter. This example declares an anonymous function as a where() predicate.

This example returns all customers with a zip code of 20002:

Customer.all().where(c => c.address.zipCode == "20002")
{
  "data": [
    {
      "id": "347323742580376064",
      "coll": "Customer",
      "ts": "2022-11-03T16:23:02.860Z",
      "firstName": "Bob",
      "lastName": "Brown",
      "address": {
        "street": "72 Waxwing Terrace",
        "city": "Washington",
        "state": "DC",
        "zipCode": "20002"
      },
      "telephone": "719-872-8799",
      "creditCard": {
        "network": "Visa",
        "number": "4916112310613672"
      }
    }
  ]
}

For simple anonymous functions, the dot prefix provides a shorthand notation that can be used that omits the parameter name. This is equivalent to the preceding example:

Customer.all().where(.address.zipCode == "20002")
{
  "data": [
    {
      "id": "347323742580376064",
      "coll": "Customer",
      "ts": "2022-11-03T16:23:02.860Z",
      "firstName": "Bob",
      "lastName": "Brown",
      "address": {
        "street": "72 Waxwing Terrace",
        "city": "Washington",
        "state": "DC",
        "zipCode": "20002"
      }
    }
  ]
}

The dot notation distinguishes field names from variable names in the same scope.

Multiple occurrences of bare field access apply to the same implicit parameter:

`.address.zipCode == "20002" && .firstName == "Bob"`

FQL supports the anonymous short form of the JavaScript square bracket notation, which is useful for indexing a top-level document field that isn’t a valid identifier. These forms are equivalent:

.foo

.["foo"]

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